在既有线货物列车提速和重载的背景下,为了研究空车编组数量对货物列车运行安全性的影响, 根据车辆系统动力学理论、列车纵向动力学理论、车辆-轨道耦合动力学理论,采用数值方法建立了空重车混编列车-轨道耦合系统动力学模型,分析了制动工况下不同数量空车编组在货物列车头、尾部时，货物列车的轮轴横向力、脱轨系数、轮重减载率等安全性指标变化情况。结果表明:当列车头部(机车后部)和尾部各编组5,10,20辆空车时，制动工况下,空车及重车的轮轴横向力、脱轨系数、轮重减载率均满足GB/T 5599- 2019《机车车辆动力学性能评定及试验鉴定规范》标准要求,且有一定安全裕量;列车中空车的轮轴横向力和轮轨横向力均小于重车,空车的脱轨系数和轮重减载率大于重车;当列车头、尾部各编组5辆空车时,空车及重车的轮轴横向力均最小，而其他两种编情况下横向轮轴力相差不大;对于脱轨系数和轮重减载率,除尾部编组5辆空车的情况外,编组在头部的空车的脱轨系数和轮重减载率均大于尾部空车,在列车头部和尾部各编组10,20辆空车时两列车整体轮重减载率差异较小。
In order to analyze the effect of the number of empty trains on the safety of freight trains, a dynamicmodel of the train -track coupling system with empty vehicles and heavy vehicles was established based on thetheory of vehicle system dynamics, train longitudinal dynamics theory and the theory of vehicle-track couplingdynamics. Based on this, the lateral wheelset force, the derailment coefficient, the wheel unloading rate were an-alyzed when different numbers of empty vehicles were located in the head and rear parts of the freight trainwhile braking. The results show that when 5, 10, and 20 empty vehicles at the head and tail of the train, the lat-eral wheelset force, the derailment coefficient, the wheel unloading rate of the empty and heavy vehicles all meetthe standard requirements of the GB/T 5599- -2019 standard and there is a certain safety margin. When the emptyand heavy vehicles mixed marshalling train braking on curve railway, the lateral wheelset force of the empty ve-hicle is less than that of the heavy vehicle, and the derailment coefficient and wheel unloading rate of the emptyvehicle are greater than that of the heavy vehicle. When 5 empty vehicles at the head and tail of the train, thelateral wheelset force of the empty vehicle and the heavy vehicle are all the minimum, but the wheel unloadingrate of the empty vehicle at the tail is the largest at the same time. For the derailment coefficient and wheel un-loading rate, except for the case of only 5 empty vehicles located in the head and rear marshalling, the derail-ment coefficient and wheel unloading rate of the empty vehicles marshalling at the head of the train are higherthan those at the tail. When the head and tail of the train are marshalling of 10 and 20 empty vehicles respec-tively, the difference in the overall wheel load reduction rate of the two trains is small.